Internet Symposium on Food Allergens
4(2): - (2002) http://www.food-allergens.de
|Allergen Data Collection:
|Authors in alphabetical order [contact
|BESLER (Hamburg, Germany)
EIGENMANN (Genève, Switzerland)
SCHWARTZ (Rochester, NY, USA)
The true prevalence of goat's milk and sheep's
milk allergy is not known. However, because IgE sensitization to sheep
and goat casein has been found to be as high as 93% to 98% in children
with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy, it is to be expected that children
who are allergic to cow's milk are also allergic to sheep's and goat's
milks. Several case reports indicate that IgE-mediated sensitization and
allergic reactions to sheep's and goat's milks can occur in children and
adults who are tolerant of and not significantly sensitized to cow's milk.
Because such sensitization and reactions have occurred with certain types
of cheese and there are hundreds of different types of cheese, it is helpful
to know the animal from which the cheeses are derived. Feta cheese can
be made from cow, ewe, or goat; pecorino and Roquefort from ewe; ricotta
from cow or ewe; mozzarella from cow, ewe, or buffalo. Other less common
sources of milk used in cheese production include camel, mare, reindeer,
Symptoms of goat's milk and sheep's milk allergy
may vary in severity from mild urticaria or localized oral pruritis to
severe anaphylactic reactions.
The diagnosis of goat's and sheep's milk allergy
is based on a thorough history supported by positive skin prick tests and
high levels of specific serum IgE to goat's and sheep’s milk allergens,
especially casein, respectively. Because of both the high association with
cow's milk allergy and the sometimes isolated occurrence of sheep's and
goat's milk allergy, testing with cow's milk can be informative. Oral challenge
procedures can be performed when acute anaphylactic reactions are not expected,
when the diagnosis is in doubt, or to determine if tolerance is present
or has developed.
This review presents data on prevalence, symptoms,
cross-reacting allergens, and sources in tabular form.
The reference lists of the Allergen Data Collections
are based mainly on searches of Medline and FSTA (Food Science & Technology
Abstracts) databases up to the related dates of publication. The scientific
rigor of the studies listed is variable and not subject of critique or
evaluation by the authors or the editor of the Allergen Data Collections.
The reader should be aware of considerable problems in comparing data from
different studies (eg. patient cohorts, diagnostic performances, possible
flaws in allergen preparations and methodologies for allergen characterization)
and is encouraged to review the original publications.
The information provided by the Internet Symposium on
Food Allergens is for educational, communication and information purposes
only and is not intended to replace or constitute medical advice or treatments.
Neither the authors nor the editorial board of the Internet Symposium on
Food Allergens is responsible for the use which might be made of the information.