|Allergen Data Collection - Update:
Rice (Oryza sativa)
|Authors in alphabetical order [contact
Rice is a cereal grain belonging to the family of Gramineae. Cereals
such as wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, and rice are reported to elicit
allergic reactions. Rice is the main and most important food taken every
day in Eastern Asia. The prevalence of IgE- mediated rice allergy is about
10% in atopic subjects in Japan. The frequency of rice allergic reactions
is much lower in Europe and the USA. Rice allergy is more prominent in
adults than in children. Symptoms frequently associated with rice allergy
are atopic dermatitis, eczema, and asthma. Anaphylactic reactions have
been reported in severe cases.
A multigene family of 14-16 kDa proteins presents the major allergens from rice seeds/grain, which show significant homology to the alpha- amylase / trypsin inhibitor family from wheat and barley. Other rice seed/grain allergens have been identified as a 33-kDa major allergen and a 60-kDa minor allergen. Most recently IgE binding cross-reactivity of rice proteins to a lipid-transfer protein from maize has been demonstrated, indicating the presence of this plant-pan allergen in rice. In addition to ingestive allergens rice presents an important aero- allergen (Ory s 1) belonging to the grass pollen group I allergens.
In order to produce hypoallergenic rice several approaches have been undertaken. Less allergenic rice was obtained after different treatments with, for example proteases, alkali and/or hyperpressure. Several products proved to be effective for the diet of rice allergic individuals with atopic dermatitis. Furthermore transgenic rice seeds with reduced expression level of the major 14-16 kDa allergens have been investigated.
An overview of prevalence data, symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic features of rice allergy as well as molecular biological and allergenic properties of rice allergens is given in tabular form.
The reference lists of the Allergen Data Collections are based mainly on searches on Medline and FSTA (Food Science & Technology Abstracts) databases up to the related dates of publication. The scientific rigor of the studies listed is variable and not subject to critique or evaluation by the authors or the editor of the Allergen Data Collections. The reader should be aware of considerable problems in comparing data from different studies (eg. patient cohorts, diagnostic performances, possible flaws in allergen preparations and methodologies for allergen characterization) and is encouraged to review the original publications.
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