Allergen Data Collection - Update: Soybean (Glycine max)
Internet Symposium on Food Allergens 2(Suppl.3): 1-35 (2000) []
1 Prevalence of Soybean Allergy

1.1 General Population

Prevalences within the author's selected populations are listed. Those that are assigned randomly selected ("unselected") with numbers more than 500 may be regarded as representative of the "general population". Inclusion criteria may involve circumstances not related to atopic predisposition according to current knowledge.
Country / Subjects Allergy / Sensitivity to References
Sweden (Göteborg, Uppsala, Västerbotten)
1397 unselected adults, age of 20-44 years (study period 1991-92)
soybean 2% (RAST) Björnsson et al. 1996

1.2 Subjects with Atopic or Other Diseases
Country / Subjects Allergy / Sensitivity to References
Australia, Victoria
100 cow's milk allergic children
soy milk 47% (parents reported) Bishop et al. 1990
Crotia, Zagreb
35 animal feed workers
soybean 29% (SPT) Zuskin et al. 1992
Finland, Oulu
children with atopic dermatits
soybean 2.8%, 5.0%, and 13% in patients < 1 year, 1-3 years, and 3-15 years of age (n=36, 40, 40) (SPT) Hannuksela 1987
80 cases of food- related anaphylaxis (from 1993-97)
soy flour 2.5% (reported to CICBAA databank) European Commission 1998
France, Meuse
742 agricultural workers
soybean dust 6.5% (SPT) Maria et al. 1991
France, Pierre Benite
a) 580 patients with adverse reactions to food
b) 60 cases of anaphylaxis (study period 1984-92)
a) soybean 30% (RAST)
b) soybean 3.3%
Andre et al. 1994
France, Nancy and Toulouse
544 food allergic children
soybean 1.2% (food challenge) Rance et al. 1999
107 children with atopic dermatitis
soybean 16% (n=45, DBPCFC) Niggemann et al. 1999
250 patients with suspected food allergy
soybean 10% (clinical history, oral challenge) Mistereck et al. 1992
150 children allergic to egg white, milk, cod fish, wheat, peanut and/or soybean
soybean 46% (RAST) Liappis & Starke 1999
Germany, Ulm
24 legume-sensitive adults
soybean 21% (SPT, RAST) Hagner et al. 1998
Italy, Milano
71 children with food intolerance
soybean 17% (oral challenge) Bardare et al. 1988
Italy, Milano
704 atopic children
soybean 21% (SPT), 
from which 6% were DBPCFC-positive
Magnolfi et al. 1996
Italy, Rome
371 children with food allergy
soy 22% (RAST) 
soy 3% (positive challenge)
Giampietro et al. 1992
Italy, Rome
174 infants at risk for atopy
soybean 5% (RAST) Bruno et al. 1995
Italy, Rome
a) 505 children with  food allergy
b) 243 children at risk for atopy
a) soybean 6% (SPT) from which 19% had positive challenge
b) soybean 6% (SPT) from which 1/14 were DBPCFC-positive
Bruno et al. 1997
Japan, Gifu, Nabu
children with asthma and/or atopic dermatitis from Gifu (n = 167) and Nanbu (n = 146)
soybean 6.8% (Nanbu), 18% (Gifu) (RAST) Agata et al. 1994
Japan, Tokyo
39 children with positive food challenge
soybean 10% (positive challenge) Iwasaki et al. 1994
Japan, Tokushima
86 patients with atopic dermatitis
soybean 20% (SDS-PAGE immunoblot) Ogawa et al. 1991
131 cases of food- induced anaphylaxis
(from 1993-1997)
legumes (excluding peanut) 4.6% (survey, reported to the TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute) European Commission 1998
Netherlands, Rotterdam
91 patients with atopic dermatitis
soybean 1% (SAFT) Oranje et al. 1992
163 food allergic infants
soybean 52% (RAST) Hofman 1994
Spain, Cartagena
patients with asthma (associated to asthma outbreak during the unloading of soybeans)
soybean 81% (SPT) Navarro et al. 1993
Spain, Tarragona
15 atopic patients affected by a soybean asthma outbreak
soybean 87% (SPT) Garcia-Ortega et al. 1998
South Africa, Cape Town
112 children with atopic dermatitis (age of 5 months to 13 years)
soybean 3.6% (questionaire) Steinman & Potter 1994
South Afrika, Johannesburg
22 workers exposed to soybean dust
soybean 36% (SPT)
soybean 36% (RAST)
Roodt & Rees 1995
61 cases of food- induced anaphylaxis (from 1994-1996)
legumes (excluding peanut) 23% (reported to the National Food Administration) European Commission 1998
55 cases of food- induced anaphylaxis (from 1994-1996)
legumes (excluding peanut) 27% (Hospital Reports) European Commission 1998
Sweden, Linköping
76 healthy newborn babies (at 8 months)
soybean 6%  (RAST)
(0% at 3, 25, and 48 months)
Hattevig et al. 1984
Sweden, Malmö
20 cow's milk allergic infants
soybean in 35% (clinical history) Jakobsson & Lindberg 1979
60 severe allergic reactions caused by food
soybean, nuts and almonds >70% Foucard et al. 1997
Switzerland, Zurich
402 food allergic adults (study period 1978-87)
soybean 1% (clinical history, diagnostic tests) Wüthrich 1993
Switzerland, Zurich
383 food allergic patients (study period 1990-94)
soybean 9% (clinical history, diagnostic tests) Etesamifar & Wüthrich 1998
Thailand, Bangkok
cow's milk-sensitive children
soybean 17% (clinical history) Harikul et al. 1995
100 asthmatic children
soy 4% (SPT) Kongpanichkul et al. 1997
a) 394 bread bakery and b) 77 cake bakery workers
soy a) 7%, b) 1% (SPT) Smith & Smith 1998
UK, London
100 patients with food intolerance
soy 1% (repeated challenge) Lessof et al. 1980
UK, Manchester
172 patients expierenced anaphylactic reactions to foods (from 1994-1996) 
legumes (excluding peanut) 2.3% (suspected cause of patients' worst reaction) Pumphrey & Stanworth 1996
USA, Baltimore, MD
196 food-allergic  patients with atopic dermatitis
soybean 28% (DBPCFC, n=111) Sampson & Ho 1997
USA, Denver, CO
a) 74 food allergic children (age of <3 years)
b) 111 food allergic children (age of 3-19 years)
a) soybean 16% (DBPCFC)
b) soybean 2.7% (DBPCFC)
Bock & Atkins 1990
USA, Durham, NC
a) 113 food allergic children with atopic dermatitis
b) 63 DBPCFC positiv children of a)
a) soybean 30% (SPT)
b) soybean 8% (DBPCFC)
Sampson & McCaskill 1985
USA, Little Rock, AR
165 patients with atopic dermatitis
soybean 13% (SPT) from which 3/19 were DBPCFC-positive  Burks et al. 1998
USA, New Haven, CT
98 infants and children with multiple gastrointestinal allergies 
soy and milk 62%
soy and gluten 35%
(clinical histroy)
Gryboski & Kocoshis 1980
148 respiratory-allergic children with reproduced symptoms after food challenge
soy formula 5% (oral challenge) Ogle et al. 1980
USA, San Diego, CA
cow's milk-sensitive infants
soybean 25% Wilson & Hamburger 1988
USA, San Diego, CA
93 cow's milk-allergic children (<3.5 years)
soybean 14 % (DBPCFC, open challenge, or convincing history of an anaphylactic reaction) Zeiger et al. 1999

2 Outgrowing / Persistence of Soybean Allergy
Country / Subjects Sensitivity to References
Spain, Barcelona
patients with asthma (associated to asthma outbreak during the unloading of soybeans, 1981-1987)
Soybean in 55% of patients with epidemic asthma and 6.0% of those with non-epidemic asthma (p<0.05) 8 years after outbreak (RAST, measurable levels in 1995 and 1989 almost identical) Anto et al. 1999
Food allergic patients 
soy, egg, milk, wheat, and peanut:
26% loss (after 1 year of onset, DBPCFC)
Sampson & Scanlon 1989
infants (mean age 8 weeks) with  food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by soybean
soy in 2 of 8 (after 25 months) Sicherer et al. 1998

3 Symptoms of Soybean Allergy
Symptoms & Case Reports References
systemic reactions
anaphylaxis (5, 7, 13, 15, 22), exercise-induced anaphylaxis (25), fatal reactions (12, 22)

cutaneous symptoms
angioedema (6), atopic dermatitis (10, 23), eczema (23), itching (14), urticaria (6), urticarial contact dermatitis (24), in general (20)

gastrointestinal symptoms
colitis (8, 18), diarrhea (1), enterocolitis (16), vomiting (1, 6) diffuse small bowel disease (8), in general (20)

respiratory symptoms
allergic rhinitis (2, 10), asthma (1, 2, 3, 9, 11, 17, 19, 22), bronchospasm (14), dyspnea (6), laryngeal edema (14), pollinosis (2), wheeze (6, 14)

other symptoms
hypotension, lethargy, and fever (1) 
food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (21)

(1) Virchow 1965
(2) Fries 1971
(3) Bush & Cohen 1977
(4) Whitington & Gibson 1977
(5) Moroz & Yang 1980
(6) Bush et al. 1985
(7) Stricker et al. 1986
(8) Richards et al. 1988
(9) Bush et al. 1988
(10) Burks et al. 1991
(11) Gonzalez et al. 1991
(12)  Yunginger et al. 1991
(13) Patane et al. 1992
(14) Herian et al. 1990
(15) Andersen & Nissen 1993
(16) Burks et al. 1994
(17) Lavaud et al. 1994
(18) Machida et al. 1994
(19) Räsänen et al. 1994
(20) Magnolfi et al. 1996
(21) Sicherer et al. 1998
(22) Foucard & Malmheden Yman 1999
(23) Niggemann et al. 1999
(24) Ikeda et al. 2000
(25) Steurich & Feyerabend 2000
Percentage of Reactions
cutaneous 68%, gastrointestinal 77%, respiratory 23%
in 31 soybean-allergic  patients with atopic dermatitis (1)
cutaneous 58%, gastrointestinal 14%, both 28%, respiratory 0%,
early reaction 57%, late reactions 43% in 7 soybean-allergic patients  (2)
(1) Sampson & Ho 1997
(2) Niggemann et al. 1999
Threshold for Elicitation of Symptoms
Amounts of soybeans inducing allergic symptoms ranged from 1 g to 8 g  (estimated protein content: 0.3 - 2.7 g)  (DBPCFC, 4 soybean allergic children) (1)
Estimated amount of soy intake in 4 fatal cases: 1-10 g as hidden allergen (2)
Amounts of soybean inducing symptoms: </= 500 mg in 28%  (DBPCFC, 196 food allergic children with atopic dermatitis) (3)
(1) Bock et al. 1978
(2) Foucard & Malmheden Yman 1999
(3) Sicherer et al. 2000

4 Diagnostic Features of Soybean Allergy
Parameters / Subjects Outcome References
IgA and IgM
5 patients with soy allergy (previously suffering from cow's milk allergy)
increased numbers of IgA- and IgM- containing cells (jejunal biopsy) Perkkio et al. 1981
IgE and IgD
13 children with various intestinal diseases
increased levels of IgE and IgD antibodies specific for soybean agglutinin (and milk proteins) in basal and pancreozymin- stimulated duodenal fluid Freier et al. 1983
7 cases of fatal soybean dust-induced asthma
reduced numbers of CD3+ and CD8+ T-cells in airways Synek et al. 1996
a) 12 soydust-asthmatic patients 
b) 23 asthmatic patients 
c) 32 non-allergic subjects
positive results in patients (specific Ig):
a) IgE 100%, IgG 75%, IgG1 16.6%, IgG2 8.3%, IgG3 0%, IgG4 66.6%, IgA 25%, and IgM 25%
b) IgE 4.3%, others negative
c) IgE 0%, IgG 0%, IgG1 6.2%, IgG2 9.4%, IgG3 9.4%, IgG4 9.4%, IgA 6.2%, and IgM 6.2%
significant positive correlation:
for IgE and IgG4 in a) only
Codina et al. 1997a
food-allergic children with atopic dermatitis
a) predictive values of specific IgE > 0.35 kU/L
positive predictive value 21% 
(50% for IgE > 65 kU/L)
negative predictive value 95%
b) predictive values of SPT ( > 3 mm)
positive predictive value 35%
negative predictive value 84%
Sampson & Ho 1997
Children suspected of IgE-mediated symptoms to soybean
No significant differences in wheal sizes between individuals who were allergic or tolerant to soybean Eigenmann & Sampson 1998
children with atopic dermatitis
a) Specific serum IgE in children with 
positive oral provocation: 7.4 kU/L
negative oral provocation: 3.2 kU/L
(no significant difference)
b) predictive value of specific IgE > 0.35 kU/L
positive predictive value 23%
negative predictive value 100%
Niggemann et al. 1999

5 Composition of Soybean

6 Allergens of Soybean
Proteins / Glycoproteins Allergen Nomenclature References
Soybean Hydrophobic Protein [7.5 /  7 kDa] Gly m 1.0101, Gly m 1.0102  Gonzalez et al. 1995
Soybean Hull Protein [8 kDa] Gly m 2 Codina et al. 1997b
Soybean Profilin [14 kDa] Gly m 3 Rihs et al. 1999
Soybean Vacuolar Protein (Gly m Bd 30K) [30 kDa] (formerly Gly m 1)* Ogawa et al. 1991
Glycinin [subunits 58-62 kDa]   Djurtoft et al. 1991
alpha subunit of
beta-Conglycinin [subunits 42-76 kDa]
  Ogawa et al. 1995
Kunitz-trypsin Inhibitor [20 kDa]   Moroz & Yang 1980 , Burks et al. 1994b ,
Baur et al. 1996
 * not in accordance with the official list (WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature)

6.1 Sensitization to Soybean Allergens
Country / Subjects Sensitivity to References
Australia, North Ryde
8 peanut sensitive patients
soybean lectin: agglutinin (30 kDa)  in all patients (RAST) Barnett & Howden 1987
10 soybean sensitive patients
Glycinin in 90% 
glycinin subunits in 100%
Djurtoft et al. 1991
Germany, Bochum
14 soybean-sensitized asthmatic bakers
trypsin inhibitor in 86%
lipoxidase in 43%
lectin in 21% (RAST)
14 kDa / pI 8 allergen in 14%
Baur et al. 1996
Germany, Bochum
13 soybean-sensitized patients
profilin (Gly m 3) in 69% (immunoblot, EAST) Rihs et al. 1999
Germany, Langen
6 soybean-allergic adults
10 proteins, major allergens: 39 and 50 kDa (SDS-PAGE / immunoblot) Müller et al. 1998
Japan, Gunma
5 soybean sensitive children
2S > 7S > 11S fraction (RAST, allergenic potency: RAST inhibition) Shibasaki et al. 1980
Japan, Nagano
30 soybean- sensitive patients (including 7 challenge positive patients)
whey fraction:
20 kDa and 58 kDa allergens
globulin fraction:
26 kDa and 31 kDa allergens
Monosensitization to 78 kDa allergen of globulin fraction in 2 challenge positive patients
(SDS-PAGE immunoblot)
Awazuhara et al. 1997
Japan, Tokushima
soybean-sensitized patients with atopic dermatitis
16 allergens, (14-97 kDa):
7S fraction: 10 allergens,
Gly m Bd 30K in 65%
alpha- subunit (beta- conglycinin) in 23%; 
2S and whey fraction: 6 allergens
(SDS-PAGE immunoblot)
Ogawa et al. 1991
Ogawa et al. 1995
Japan, Tokushima
soybean-sensitized patients with atopic dermatitis
26 kDa allergen (Gly m Bd 28K) in 23%
(SDS-PAGE immunoblot)
Ogawa et al. 1991
Tsuji et al. 1997
Spain, Barcelona
10 patients with asthma
soybean hull and dust extracts: minor allergens (21 to 42 kDa), major allergen < 14 kDa glycopeptide, pI < 6 (SDS- and IEF-PAGE immunoblot ) Rodrigo et al. 1990
Swanson et al. 1991
Spain, Barcelona
15 soybean-sensitized patients with asthma
2 nonoverlapping IgE binding patterns:
a) in 73% 3 allergens : 8, 7.5 and 7 kDa (Gly m 2, Gly m 1.0101 and Gly m 1.0102)
b) in 20% 1 allergen at 8.2-8.3 kDa and 4 allergens at 25-36 kDa (SDS-PAGE immunoblot)
Codina et al. 1999
Spain, Cartagena
32 patients with asthma
shell allergens of soy dust in 90%; major allergen of  8 kDa  (RAST, immunoblot) Gonzalez et al. 1991
Spain, Cartagena
20 patients with asthma sensitized to soy
Gly m 1.0101 / Gly m 1.0102 in 95%
Gonzalez et al. 1992
Spain, Tarragona
13 patients with asthma sensitized to soy
5-6 kDa allergen in 62%
15.5-17 kDa allergen in 77%
(SDS-PAGE / immunoblot)
Garcia-Ortega et al. 1998
UK, London
21 patients with wheat-induced asthma
21 kDa allergen in 100%
15 kDa allergen in 19%
(SDS-PAGE / immunoblot)
Sandiford et al. 1995
USA, Little Rock, AR
8 Children with atopic dermatitis and soy allergy
7S and 11S protein fractions: increased specific serum IgE and IgG (ELISA) Burks et al. 1988
USA, Little Rock, AR
8 Children with atopic dermatitis and soy allergy
crude soy extract and 7S fraction: increased specific IgE; 
whey and 11S: no significant difference in IgE-binding (EAST)
7S and 11S fraction detected by all sera (SDS-PAGE / immunoblot)
Burks et al. 1991
USA, Little Rock, AR
5 patients with atopic dermatitis and soy allergy
trypsin inhibitor in 1 patient (spec. IgE, immunoblot, EAST) Burks et al. 1994b
USA, Little Rock, AR
2 soybean-allergic patients, 1 soybean- and peanut- allergic patient
17, 21, 26, and 45 kDa allergens (SDS-PAGE / immunoblot) Eigenmann et al. 1996
USA, Little Rock, AR
4 patients with atopic dermatitis and soy allergy
20, 30-35, 50, and 65 kDa allergens (SDS-PAGE / immunoblot) Helm et al. 1998
USA, Madison, WI
1 soybean-asthmatic  patient
14.8, 17, 21, 48, 52, and 54.5 kDa allergens (SDS-PAGE / immunoblot) Bush et al. 1988
USA, Madison, WI
7 soybean allergic adults
50-60 kDa allergens in 57% (patients with soy and peanut allergy)
20 kDa allergen in 29% (detected by monosensitized patients)
14 kDa allergen in 14%
(SDS-PAGE / immunoblot)
Herian et al. 1990

6.2 Soybean Hydrophobic Protein (Gly m 1)
6.3 Soybean Hull Protein (Gly m 2)
6.4 Soybean Profilin (Gly m 3)
6.5 Soybean Vacuolar Protein (Gly m Bd 30K)
6.6 Glycinin
6.7 beta-Conglycinin
6.8 Kunitz-trypsin Inhibitor

7 Isolation & Preparation
Extract / Purified Allergens Methods References
Hydrophobic protein (Gly m 1.0101) 60% ethanolic extract of seeds Odani et al. 1987
Commercial and self-prepared extracts abscence of high Mr proteins in commercial extracts (SDS-PAGE immunoblot) Herian et al. 1992
Gly m 1.0101, Gly m 1.0102 Purification by SEC / RP-HPLC Gonzalez et al. 1992
Soybean trypsin inhibitor Extraction from soy protein isolate with PBS for 4h at 4°C; Purification by gel filtration and electroelution Burks et al. 1994b
Gly mBd 28K Isolation from defatted soybean flakes using 5 chromatographic steps including immunoaffinity chromatography with a mAb Tsuji et al. 1997
Soybean proteins Soybeans frozen, ground (<-5°C) and extracted with PBS for 4h at 4°C
Soybean lecithin extracted in a two phase aqueous / organic solvent system, purification of aqueous phase by gel chromatography
Müller et al. 1998
Soybean hull grounded hulls: extraction with ammonium bicarbonate buffer (0.2 M, pH 7.9) overnight, centrifugation, dialysis and centrifugation Morell et al. 1999

8 Cross-Reactivities
Cross-Reacting Allergens Subjects / Methods References
soybean (sensitivity in 90% of patients), peanut (90%), green pea (80%), lima bean (53%), string bean (43%)*
30 atopic children with suspected soybean allergy (Skin test) Fries 1971
peanut, garden pea, and chick pea
15 peanut-sensitive patients (RAST-inhibition) Barnett et al. 1987
Soybean allergen (17 kDa)
green pea (17 kDa)
1 patient with asthma (immunoblotting) Bush et al. 1988
soybean (sensitivity in 43% of patients), peanut (87%), green bean (22%), pea (26%), and lima bean (41%)*
69 legume-sensitive patients (SPT) (1)
frequency of multiple sensitization: 4.9% (DBPCFC, 41 patients) (1)
in vitro cross-reactivity did not correlate with clinical hypersensitivity (SDS-PAGE and dot / immunoblot) (2)
(1) Bernhisel-Broadbent & Sampson 1989
(2) Bernhisel-Broadbent et al. 1989
patient allergic to peanut and soy:
73% reduction of IgE-binding to peanut after adsorption of cross-reacting antibodies (ELISA)
Eigenmann et al. 1996
wheat, rye, and barley flours
21 patients with wheat-induced asthma
(RAST inhibition)
Sandiford et al. 1995
wheat flour (sensitivity in 80% of patients), rye flour 66%, alpha-amylase of Aspergillus oryzae (Asp o 2) 33%*
14 soybean-sensitized asthmatic bakers
Baur et al. 1996
peanuts and peas
4 peanut allergic and 2 pea allergic adults (RAST-inhibition) Hagner et al. 1998
corn, rice, and peanut
soybean, corn, rice, and peanut allergic patients: significant inhibition of IgE- binding to soybean by corn, rice, and peanut (RAST inhibition) Lehrer et al. 1999
Soybean Profilin Gly m 3
birch pollen profilin Bet v 2
Complete inhibition of IgE-binding to Bet v 2 by recombinant Gly m 3 (EAST inhibition, 2 soybean sensitive patients) Rihs et al. 1999
*  multiple sensitization (not proven by  inhibition-tests)
Unique Allergens Subjects / Methods References
Soybean / Peanut
46 and 21 kDa allergens from soybean did not cross-react with peanut allergens;
46, 29, 25, 19, 17, 14, and 5 kDa allergens from peanut did not cross-react with soybean allergens
2 patients allergic to peanut and soy
3 patients allergic to peanut
a) removal of cross-reacting antibodies from serum by soy- and peanut-affinity chromatography, respectively
b) detection of unique IgE-binding proteins in SDS-PAGE immunoblot
Eigenmann et al. 1996

9 Stability of Soybean Allergens
Treatment Effects References
Soybean hull (Storage)
(a) fresh, (b) stored, (c) stored and heated for 16 h
IgE- and IgG4-binding:
stored > fresh extracts
heated > untreated extracts (EAST inhibition)
heated to 80°C: 
absence of several bands > 20 kDa
abscence of 1 major allergen (probably Gly m 2)
2 new IgE-binding bands of 10 and 15.3 kDa
1 new IgG4-binding band of 10 kDa as compared to RT, 37°C, 55°C treatment (SDS-PAGE immunoblot)
Codina et al. 1998
Soybean hull (Storage)
fresh and glycerinated extracts:
storage (30 days, -70°C to 4°C)
increase of positivities in SPT with all glycerinated extracts after 30 days of storage,
loss of protein bands > 66 kDa for non-glycerinated extract stored at 4°C (SDS-PAGE)
Morell et al. 1999
Soybeans (Heat)
microwave 700W, 25 min
15 soybean-allergic adults
IgE-binding (EAST):
raw soybean:  15 sera
heated soybean: 9 sera
Vieths et al. 1995
Soybeans (Heat)
cooking 100°C, 2h
6 soybean-allergic adults
IgE-binding (EAST):
raw soybean:  6 sera
cooked soybean: 3 sera
max. inhibition of Ig-binding to heated soybean extract (EAST):
39% by raw extract
89% by heated extract
Müller et al. 1998
Crude Soy Protein (Heat)
heat 80°C and 120°C, 60 min 
decrease in IgE-binding
80°C: no change in IgG-binding
120°C: decrease in IgG-binding (ELISA)
Burks et al. 1991
Crude Soy, 7S-, 11S-, and Whey Proteins (Heat)
heat RT to 100°C, 5 to 60 min
no significant changes in IgE- and IgG-binding (2 patients with soybean allergy, EAST inhibition) Burks et al. 1992
Soy Whey Proteins (Heat)
heat 80°C and 120°C, 60 min 
80°C: no change in IgE- and IgG-binding
120°C: decrease in IgE- and IgG-binding (ELISA)
Burks et al. 1991
11S-, 7S- and 2S-Globulins (Heat)
heat 80°C, 100°C and 120°C, 30 min
80°C: 2S-globuline slightly increased,
11S and 7S reduced IgE-binding (42-75%)
100°C, 120°: decreased IgE-binding for all fractions (39-83%) (RAST)
Shibasaki et al. 1980
11S- and 7S-Globulins (Heat)
heat 80°C and 120°C, 60 min 
80°C: decrease in IgE-binding; decrease (7S) and increase (11S) in IgG-binding
120°C: decrease in IgE- and IgG-binding (ELISA)
Burks et al. 1991
Crude Soy Protein (Hydrolysis)
2 step enzyme digestion a) pepsin and b) trypsin, chymotrypsin and intestinal mucosal peptidase digestion
50%-inhibition concentration: 10 fold increased  for digested soy proteins (2 patients with soybean allergy, EAST inhibition) Burks et al. 1992
Crude Soy Protein (Hydrolysis)
enzyme digestion (2 proteases)
reduced IgE-binding (immunoblot) Yamanishi et al. 1996
Glycinin, beta-Conglycinin (Hydrolysis)
a) in vitro digestion with trypsin
b) in vivo digestion of a processed soy ingredient in rats 
a) beta-Conglycinin: decrease in immunoreactivity; Glycinin: 3-fold increase in immunoreactivity (ELISA, rabbit antibody)
b) Glycinin and beta-conglycinin were digested rapidly, intact globulins disappeared from the gastrointestinal tract within 3 h; immunoreactive globulins in gut contents and associated with gut tissues in a semi-intact form, probably comprising proteolytic intermediates
Perez et al. 2000

10 Allergen Sources
Reported Adverse Reactions References
Several Food Products
Fatal anaphylaxis of a 10 year old girl sensitized to peanut and soy (RAST) after ingestion of sausage pizza fortified with soy protein (1)
Symptoms after ingestion of tofu, soybean salat, soybean sprouts, and spring rolls (2)
Baker's asthma induced by soy lecithin (Skin test, RAST, bronchial challenge) (3)
Soy proteins in Spanish sausage products (chorizo, salchichon, mortadella, and boiled ham), doughnut and soup stock cubes (Skin test, RAST, bronchial and oral challenge) (4)
Anaphylactic symptoms caused by pizza containing soy proteins (5)
4 fatal anaphylactic reaction in adolescents with known peanut allergy and unrecognized soybean allergy caused by meatballs with 3% soyprotein, hamburger (1 case soyprotein content unkown, other case 2.2% soyprotein), and kebab with 7% soyprotein (6)
6 life-threatening allergic reactions after ingestion of ice cream and meatballs with soy, and soysauce (6)
(1) Yunginger et al. 1991
(2) Mistereck et al. 1992
(3) Lavaud et al. 1994
(4) Vidal et al. 1997
(5) Senne et al. 1998
(6) Foucard & Malmheden Yman 1999
Hamburger, Kebab, Crab Stick
Fatal anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of a hamburger with added soyprotein (2.1%); 2 additional allergic reaction after ingestion of a kebab containing 7% soyprotein and a crab stick with 0.5-0.9% undeclared soyprotein
Malmheden Yman et al. 1994
Urticarial contact dermatitis in a 20 year old woman after contact with tofu (SPT, Immunoblot)
Ikeda et al. 2000
Soy lecithins
Positive DBPCFC with 100 mg soy lecithins in a 4 year old boy , symptoms of erythematous rash on the jaws 1 h after ingestion
Palm et al. 1999
Urticarial eruptions associated with lipid emulsions (1)
Anaphylactic shock after infusion of soybean oil based preparation for parenteral nutrition (2)
Systemic reactions (flush, dyspnea, tachycardia, hypotension, back pain) to a parenteral lipid emulsion, reexposure to parenteral solutions containing no soy lecithin emulsifier was tolerated (3)
(1) Buchman & Ament 1991
(2) Andersen & Nissen 1993
(3) Weidmann et al. 1997

Allergens in Soybean Products Content / Products References
Soybean Proteins
7 soybean-allergic adults  (RAST inhibition)
Inhibitory potency of IgE-binding to raw soybean proteins (max. Inhibition):
raw soybeans (70%), sprouts (70%) > acid- hydrolyzed sauce (40%), tofu (25-30%), hydrolyzed vegetable protein (40%), tempeh (20%), miso (20%) > mold-hydrolyzed sauce (10%)
Herian et al. 1993
Soybean Proteins
15 soybean-allergic adults  (EAST inhibition)
IgE-binding proteins in
soy-milk, tofu, textured soy-protein
Vieths et al. 1995
Soybean Proteins
Patients with atopic dermatitis and high levels of IgE; Determination of IgG-binding to protein fractions (ELISA, immunoblot)
IgG-binding proteins in
commercial  margarines
not detected in
hypoallergenic magarine
Yokota et al. 1996
Soybean Proteins
30 soybean-allergic adults (immunoblot)
IgE-binding proteins in
lecithins (31 kDa allergen)
protein contents:
soybean lecithin 2.8 mg / 100 g
soybean oil 1.4 to 4.0 µg / 100 g
Awazuhara et al. 1998
Soybean Proteins
6 soybean-allergic adults (EAST, immunoblot)
IgE-binding proteins in
4/6 commercial lecithins:
27, 39, and 40 kDa allergens
Müller et al. 1998
Gly m Bd 30K
Determination of  Gly m Bd 30K (ELISA)
high concentrations in
soy milk, tofu, kori-dofu, yuba, and in soybean protein isolate containing foods meat balls, beef croquettes, and fried chicken
low concentration in
not detected in
fermented foods (miso, shoyu, and natto)
(1) Tsuji et al. 1995
Gly m Bd 28K
Determination of  Gly m Bd 28K (ELISA)
detected in : soy milk, tofu, kori-tofu, yuba
not detected in: fermented foods (miso, shoyu, and natto), meat ball, beef croquettes, and fried chicken (1) 
(1) Bando et al. 1998

Reported Safe Products References
Soybean Oil
6 commercial soybean oil samples: safe ingestion of total dose of 15 mL by 7 soybean allergic individuals (DBPCFC) (1)
(1) Bush et al. 1985
tolerance to parenteral solutions containing no soy lecithin emulsifier  (1)
(1) Weidmann et al. 1997

Allergen Depleted Products Method References
Soy Protein Isolate
90% removal of allergen Gly m Bd 30K (1)
salted out with Na2SO4, acidifying to pH 4.5 and centrifugation (1) (1) Samoto et al. 1994
Soy Protein Isolate
from a genetically mutated soybean (Tohoku 124): 99.78% removal of allergen Gly m Bd 30K (1)
salted out with Na2SO4, acidifying to pH 4.5 and centrifugation (1) (1) Samoto et al. 1996b
Soybean Mutants
lacking alpha and alpha'  subunits of beta- conglycinin (1)
lacking the 7S globulin (beta-conglycinin) subunits, alpha, alpha' and beta (2)
soybean mutation induced by gamma- ray irradiation (1)
soybean variety produced by classical breeding techniques (2)
(1) Takahashi et al. 1996
(2) Hayashi et al. 1998

11 Soybean Protein in Infant Feed
Subjects Feeding / Formula References
328 children with a positive family history of allergy (15 years follow up)  Breast fed infants were found to have approximately one-half the incidence of atopy of cow's milk or soy based formula fed infants  Gruskay 1982
16 infants with congenital lactase deficiency (lactose malabsorption) 10 on soy-based formula 
1 had allergic symptoms
Savilahti et al. 1983
101 newborn infants of atopic parents
(total serum IgE)
development of atopic disease
breast-fed group:
38% with IgE > 0.8 U/ml
12% with IgE < 0.8 U/ml 
soy-fed group:
33% with IgE > 0.8 U/ml
16% with IgE < 0.8 U/ml
cow's milk-fed group:
90% with IgE > 0.8 U/ml
17% with IgE < 0.8 U/ml
Businco et al. 1983
97 brest fed and 124 non brest fed infants development of atopic eczema
breast-fed group:
22%  (restricted maternal diet)
48% (no restricted maternal diet)
soy-fed group:  in 63%
cow's milk-fed group:  in 70%
casein hydrolysate-fed group:  in 21%
Chandra et al. 1989a
72 infants with family history of atopy (each group) incidence of atopic eczema, wheezing, rhinitis, gastrointestinal symptoms, or colic
breast-fed group:  in 20%
soy-fed group:  in 37%
cow's milk-fed group:  in 36%
cow's milk whey hydrolysate-fed group: in 7%
cumulative incidence of atopic disease:
breast-fed and whey hydrolysate-fed group < cow's milk and soy-formula fed group
Chandra et al. 1989b
Chandra & Hamed 1991
Chandra 1997
20 cow's milk allergic infants incidence of allergic symptoms:
2S protein fraction depleted soy milk
in 17% of infants
Marano et al. 1989
(a) 12 infants with protracted enteritis 
(b) 10 infants with atopic eczema
fed with lactose-free soy and beef hydrolysate based formula: 
improvement of symptoms in both groups, allergic symptoms in 1 (a) and 3  (b) infants who were previously fed with intact soy protein
Donzelli et al. 1990
21 infants with gastrointestinal symptoms of cow's milk and/or soy protein intolerance fed with whey protein hydrolysate formula: improvement of symptoms Merrit et al. 1990
40 atopic children specific IgE against soy / beef collagen hydrolysate in 1 patient Gortler & Urbanek 1990
43 patients with possible milk- and/or soy-protein enterocolitis cow's milk
23% positive challenge
2 hydrolyzed soy protein isolates
a) 33% positive challenge
b) 30% positive challenge
Burks et al. 1994
12 infants with adverse reactions to soy formula, whey hydrolysate, or casein hydrolysate (4) infant formula composed of individual amino acids: no symptoms Hill et al. 1995
analysis of 17 studies allergy to soy-based formula:
in 27% of patients (total incidences), 3% (DBPCFC) and 4% (positive challenge)
Cantani & Lucenti 1997

12 Allergenicity of Genetically Modified Soybeans
Product References
Transgenic Soybean /  Pesticide resistant
Aim: glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (product Roundup Ready)
Modification: Introduced enzyme: 5-enolpyruvylshikimate- 3-phosphate synthase enzyme derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain
Digestability: introduced enzyme degrades readily in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (2)
Allergenicity: no discernible changes, either qualitatively or quantitatively, in composition of endogenous soybean allergens in either of the glyphosate- tolerant varieties analyzed (1)

(1) Burks & Fuchs 1995
(2) Harrison et al. 1996
Transgenic Soybean / Brazil nut protein 
Aim: Improvement of nutritional quality
Modification: Introduced allergen: methionine-rich 2S albumin from the Brazil nut (Betholletia excelsa)
Allergenicity: All patients with positive reactions to brazil nut proteins were positive to the transgenic soybean (SPT, RAST, immunoblot)
(Product withheld from the market by the company)
Nordlee et al. 1996
Transgenic Soybean / Corn proteins 
Aim: Improvement of nutritional quality (amino acid composition)
Modification: Introduced corn proteins: 10 kDa and HSZ
Allergenicity: Both proteins did not bind IgE from sera of corn-reactive subjects (immunoblot)
Lehrer & Reese 1997
Transgenic Soybean / Oleic acid 
Modification: transgenic soybean with an altered fatty acid profile
Allergenicity: no difference in allergen content of  wild-type and transgenic soybean extracts (RAST inhibition, immunoblot)
Lehrer & Reese 1997
Cultivar Tohoku 124
lacks alpha- and alpha'-subunits of conglycinin which bind allergen Gly m Bd 30K (1) and lacks Gly m Bd 28K (2)
(1) Samoto et al. 1996b
(2) Samoto et al. 1997

13 Food Allergen Labelling
Food Allergen  Labelling / Regulation Status References
International Regulations
Peanuts, soybeans and products of these
mandatory labelling of prepackaged food / advisary status (1) (1) Codex Alimentarius Commission 1999
European Regulations
Soybean and Soybean Products
labelling appropriate / recommendation (1) (1) Bousquet et al. 1998

14 References

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